Slipping / Tripping and Falling Incidents

E J Allen & Associates provide detailed forensic reports for the following:


  • Slipping accidents
  • Tripping accidents
  • Falling from heights
  • Slip resistance testing using Pendulum
  • Surface roughness testing using Surtronic 10


Slipping (Pedestrians)


Many pedestrian accidents result from slipping or tripping. Indeed, many books and

reports have been written on the subject. E J Allen & Associateshave experts who are members of the United Kingdom Slip Resistance Group. We maintain our own equipment for carrying out slip resistance tests to establish the coefficient of friction of floor surfaces and roughness. The equipment is regularly calibrated by the British Standards Institute. The UKSRG monitors developments in testing methods and results. Members include the HSE and leading floor manufacturers and test houses.


The Pendulum Portable Slip

Resistance Tester


We found one case where there was a tap and sink located on an upper mezzanine floor and could result in water splashing onto the staircase below. In our view this was foreseeable. The Pendulum Portable slip resistance tester. This floor had good surface slip resistance when dry but very poor slip resistance when wet. Such floors should not be used where any fluid contaminant is likely to affect the surface. 


Site Inspection

Exterior steps with water running off the upper level onto steps over a period of time leading to moss and algae growth and water pools near the wall on the steps. Added to this there was no hand rail. So, anyone using the stairs near to the left hand wall would find the steps slippery and would not be able to save themselves by use of a hand rail because there was not one fitted.

Slipping and tripping accidents can occur at home. Slipping downstairs and being electrocuted at the same time was the misfortune of a lady who was descending from her flat down a communal staircase. The cleaning system was wrong because the stairs should not have been in use whilst being vacuumed.  There was a lift but it did not reach her flat’s floor level.


Pedestrians need a good, secure and slip resistant surface on which to walk, ideally not less than 0.36µ. The areas we are asked to examine are many and varied and include the unusual such as this pedestrian bridge in Docklands where the owner wanted to check if the provision was satisfactory. One concern was over the proximity of City airport.   Kerosene deposits from aircrafts can affect timber walkways. We checked the bridge 2 years running.



TThe Greek letter mu = µ = coefficient of friction = Force  =   F

                                                                                  Weight     W




Here one of our engineers is seen on a kneeling pad carrying out pendulum skid resistance testing of  the dry and wet road surface. In such cases it is necessary for us to use a Road Management firm to close the road.   We cannot presume what his results are likely to be because thereare some roads that fall below standard and even new road surfaces may be unsatisfactory until the surface oxidizes.


In some cases road seal joints can result in localised poor slip resistance for motorcycles and pedal cycles. One case   we dealt with in MALTA showed the road was very slippery when dry and µ was lower than a poor wet road in England.